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Land Redistribution in South Africa : A Critical Review

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World Bank (WB)

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of land reform in South Africa from 1994 to 2011, with the focus on the land redistribution. The government policies and associated implementation since 1994 have not generated expected social and economic results for a number of reasons. Even where land has been transferred, it appears to have had minimal impact on the livelihoods of beneficiaries, largely because of inappropriate project design, a lack of necessary support services and shortages of working capital, leading to widespread underutilization of land. There is no evidence to suggest that land reform has led to improvements in agricultural efficiency, income, employment or economic growth. Therefore, the current approach, based on acquisition of land through the open market, minimal support to new farmers, and bureaucratic imposition of production models loosely based on existing commercial operators, is unlikely to transform the rural economy and lift people out of poverty. The paper argues that there are two important missing aspects in the land reform program. First, there is an absence of any viable small-farmer path to development, which could enable the millions of households residing in the communal areas and on commercial farms to expand their own production and accumulate wealth and resources in an incremental manner. Making this happen would require radical restructuring of existing farm units to create family-size farms, more realistic farm planning, appropriate support from a much-reformed state agricultural service, and a much greater role for beneficiaries in the design and implementation of their own projects. Second, what is clearly missing from the governance tradition is the sustained focus on implementation, resource mobilization, and timely policy adjustment. Much more will be required for land reform program to contribute significantly to economic growth and to the redistribution of wealth and opportunities to the majority of the population.
Type: Working Paper
Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Publications & Research
Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/27168
Subject: AGENTS
AGRARIAN ECONOMY
AGRARIAN REFORM
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
AGRICULTURAL FINANCE
AGRICULTURAL LAND
AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
AGRICULTURAL SUPPORT
AGRICULTURE
COLLECTIVE FARMING
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
COMMERCIAL BANKS
COMMERCIAL FARMERS
COMMERCIAL FARMS
COMMUNAL AREAS
COMMUNAL LAND
COMMUNAL LANDS
COMMUNAL TENURE
CROP VARIETIES
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
ECONOMIC GROWTH
ECONOMICS
EQUIPMENT
EQUITABLE ACCESS
EQUITY SHARES
EVICTIONS
EXTENSION
FARM EMPLOYMENT
FARM PLANNING
FARM WORKERS
FARMERS
FARMING AREAS
FARMLAND
FARMS
FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS
FOOD SECURITY
GENDER
HOUSEHOLD HEADS
HOUSEHOLD INCOME
HOUSEHOLDS
HOUSING
HUMAN RIGHTS
ILLITERACY
IMPROVED LAND
INCOME
INCOMES
INEQUALITY
LAND ACQUISITION
LAND ADMINISTRATION
LAND CLAIMS
LAND EXPROPRIATION
LAND MANAGEMENT
LAND NATIONALIZATION
LAND OWNERS
LAND OWNERSHIP
LAND PRICES
LAND REDISTRIBUTION
LAND REFORM
LAND REFORM BENEFICIARIES
LAND RIGHTS
LAND TENURE
LAND TENURE REFORM
LAND TRANSFERS
LAND USE
LANDLESS HOUSEHOLDS
LANDLESS PEOPLE
LANDOWNERS
LEASEHOLD
LEASES
LEASING
LIVELIHOODS
LIVESTOCK
MALNUTRITION
MARKETING
NGOS
NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
POINTS
POOR
POOR PAY
POOR PEOPLE
POST-SETTLEMENT SUPPORT
POVERTY LINE
POVERTY REDUCTION
PRIVATE SECTOR
PROPERTY RIGHTS
RURAL
RURAL AREAS
RURAL BUSINESS
RURAL COMMUNITIES
RURAL DEVELOPMENT
RURAL ECONOMY
RURAL PEOPLE
RURAL POVERTY
RURAL SECTOR
RURAL SETTINGS
SMALL FARMS
SMALLHOLDER FARMERS
TARGETING
TENANT FARMERS
TENANTS
UNEMPLOYMENT
URBAN LAND
URBANIZATION
VETERINARY SERVICES
WAR




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