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Labor Productivity and Employment Gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa

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World Bank (WB)

Abstract: Drawing on a new set of nationally representative, internationally comparable household surveys, this paper provides an overview of key features of structural transformation—labor allocation and labor productivity—in four African economies. New, micro-based measures of sector labor allocation and cross-sector productivity differentials describe the incentives households face when allocating their labor. These measures are similar to national accounts-based measures that are typically used to characterize structural changes in African economies. However, because agricultural workers supply far fewer hours of labor per year than do workers in other sectors, productivity gaps disappear almost entirely when expressed on a per-hour basis. What look like large productivity gaps in national accounts data could really be employment gaps, calling into question the prospective gains that laborers can achieve through structural transformation. These employment gaps, along with the strong linkages observed between rural non-farm activities and primary agricultural production, highlight agricultures continued relevance to structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Type: Working Paper
Publications & Research
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/21848
Subject: LIVING STANDARDS
JOBS
EMPLOYMENT
HOUSEHOLD SURVEY
COUNTRY COMPARISONS
PRODUCTIVITY LEVELS
ECONOMIC GROWTH
WORK FORCE
ACCOUNTING
PRODUCTION
LAGS
EMPLOYMENT SHARE
STRUCTURAL CHANGE
INCOME
INTEREST
SERVICE SECTOR
GROSS REVENUES
LABOR ALLOCATION
INDUSTRY
GROSS SALES
STRATEGIES
GDP PER CAPITA
INFORMATION
LABOR FORCE
SERVICES
WELFARE
JOB
EFFECTS
INCENTIVES
VARIABLES
INPUTS
RETAIL TRADE
PAYMENTS
SAVING
AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT
VALUE OF OUTPUT
TRENDS
DEVELOPMENT
PER CAPITA INCOMES
LABOR MARKET
SAVINGS
EMPLOYMENT LEVELS
DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
INDUSTRY WAGE
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
TRANSPORT
ECONOMIC MOBILITY
FIRM LEVEL
LABOR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH
WORKER
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
PRODUCTIVITY
ECONOMETRICS
INTEREST RATES
LABOR PRODUCTIVITY
INDUSTRIALIZATION
MIGRATION
TOTAL WAGES
MARKETS
HOUSEHOLD INCOME
ORGANIZATIONS
HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS
STANDARDS
LABOR
ENTERPRISES
NATURAL RESOURCES
FINANCE
EFFICIENCY
ECONOMIC RESEARCH
INFRASTRUCTURE
PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH
FACTOR MARKETS
CONSUMPTION
HUMAN CAPITAL
VALUE ADDED
WORKERS
WAGES
POLICIES
LABOR DEMAND
VALUE
BANK
PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES
CLERKS
PURCHASING POWER
DEMAND
PERMANENT INCOME
OCCUPATIONS
AGE GROUPS
OCCUPATION
SAFETY NET
RURAL POVERTY
INCOME EARNING
CONSUMERS
AGRICULTURE
SERVICES CATEGORY
NET VALUE
RURAL WORKERS
MEASUREMENT
WAGE RATE
SHARES
HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS
DOWNWARD BIAS
EARNING
BENCHMARK
ECONOMICS
MANAGEMENT
GOVERNANCE
LABOR ORGANIZATION
SERVICE SECTORS
TRADE
GDP
GOODS
LAND
SECURITY
MARGINAL REVENUE
INVESTMENT
RISK
PRODUCTIVITY GAP
CONTRACTING
LABORERS
LABOR ALLOCATION DECISIONS
TRANSACTIONS COSTS
SUPPLY
REVENUE
LABOR SUPPLY
PROFIT
DISSAVINGS
PRODUCTIVITY GAINS
AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITY
ECONOMICS RESEARCH
CONSUMPTION LEVELS
LABOR MARKETS
GOVERNMENTS
SAFETY
RURAL INDUSTRY
MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES
WAGE EMPLOYMENT
PRICES
LABOR SHARE
PRODUCTION COSTS
NON-FARM SECTOR
SERVICE PROVIDERS
DEVELOPMENT POLICY
FUTURE RESEARCH
EXPECTED RETURNS
EMPLOYEES




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