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Striving for Better Jobs : The Challenge of Informality in the Middle East and North Africa

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World Bank (WB)

Abstract: Economic growth has been sustained for many years pre-crisis in the region, but this has not resulted in the creation of an adequate number of jobs and has succeeded, at best, in generating low-quality, informal jobs. The report addresses one margin of exclusion: informal employment and the vulnerabilities and lack of opportunities associated with it. The report analyzes the constraints that prevent informal workers from becoming formal and discusses policy options to effectively address these constraints. This report looks at informality through a human development angle and focuses particularly on informal employment. Informality is a complex phenomenon, comprising unpaid workers and workers without social security or health insurance coverage, small or micro-firms that operate outside the regulatory framework and large registered firms that may partially evade corporate taxes and social security contributions. The first section provides a detailed profile of informal workers in the region. The second section describes the characteristics of informality in micro-firms that operate outside the regulatory framework and in larger firms that do not fully comply with social security contribution requirements and tax obligations. The third section presents informality and the firm. The fourth section focuses on informality: choice or exclusion? The fifth section discusses policy options for effectively expanding coverage of health insurance and pension systems and promoting the creation of better quality jobs.
Type: Publications & Research :: Publication
Publications & Research
Link: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/08/20161376/striving-better-jobs-challenge-informality-middle-east-north-africa
978-0-8213-9535-6
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/19905
Subject: ACCOUNTING
ACTIVE LABOR
ACTIVE LABOR MARKET
ACTIVE LABOR MARKET PROGRAM
ACTIVE LABOR MARKET PROGRAMS
AGE GROUP
AGE GROUPS
ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENT
ANNUAL LEAVE
ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION
AVERAGE WAGE
AVERAGE WAGES
BARGAINING
BARGAINING POWER
BARRIERS TO ENTRY
BENEFICIARIES
CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS
CIVIL SERVICE
COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS
COMPLIANCE COSTS
CORPORATE TAX RATE
CORPORATE TAX RATES
COUNTRY COMPARISONS
CREATING OPPORTUNITIES
CROSS-SECTIONAL DATA
DEBT
DISCUSSIONS
DISMISSAL
DISTORTED INCENTIVES
DRIVERS
EARLY RETIREMENT
EARNING
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
ECONOMIC GROWTH
ECONOMIC POLICIES
ECONOMIC RISKS
ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN
ECONOMIC THEORY
ECONOMICS
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
EMPLOYABILITY
EMPLOYEE
EMPLOYMENT
EMPLOYMENT COMPOSITION
EMPLOYMENT GROWTH
EMPLOYMENT LIKELIHOOD
EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES
EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK
EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS
EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION LEGISLATION
EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP
EMPLOYMENT SECURITY
EMPLOYMENT SIZE
EMPLOYMENT STATUS
ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
EXTERNALITIES
FEMALE EMPLOYMENT
FINANCIAL CRISIS
FINDING EMPLOYMENT
FINDING JOBS
FIRM ENTRY
FIRM LEVEL
FIRM SIZE
FIXED COSTS
FORMAL LABOR MARKET
GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION
GOVERNMENT REVENUE
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
HEALTH INSURANCE
HIGH WAGE
HOLDING
HUMAN CAPITAL
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
INCOME
INCOME SECURITY
INCOME SUPPORT
INDIRECT LABOR COSTS
INFORMAL ECONOMIES
INFORMAL ECONOMY
INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT
INFORMAL SECTOR
INNOVATION
INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS
INSURANCE DESIGN
INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN
INTERNATIONAL BANK
INTERNATIONAL FINANCE
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
INVESTING
INVESTMENT CLIMATE
INVESTMENT INSTRUMENTS
JOB CREATION
JOB DURATION
JOB LOSS
JOB SEARCH
JOB SEARCH ASSISTANCE
JOB SECURITY
JOBS
LABOR CONTRACTS
LABOR COST
LABOR DEMAND
LABOR FORCE
LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION
LABOR LAWS
LABOR LEGISLATION
LABOR MARKET
LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES
LABOR MARKET REFORM
LABOR MARKET REGULATION
LABOR MARKET REGULATIONS
LABOR MARKETS
LABOR MOBILITY
LABOR PRODUCTIVITY
LABOR REGULATIONS
LABOR SUPPLY
LABOUR
LEVEL PLAYING FIELD
LIVING STANDARDS
LOCAL CURRENCY
MALE WORKERS
MARKET SEGMENTATIONS
MINIMUM CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS
MINIMUM WAGE
MINIMUM WAGES
MONETARY FUND
NATURAL RESOURCES
NEW ENTRANTS
NPL
OCCUPATIONAL RISKS
OCCUPATIONS
OLD-AGE PENSION
ON-THE-JOB TRAINING
PENSION REFORM
PENSION SYSTEM
PENSION SYSTEMS
PENSIONS
POLITICAL ECONOMY
PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT
PRIVATE ENTERPRISE
PRIVATE INVESTMENT
PRIVATE INVESTMENTS
PRIVATE SECTOR
PRIVATE SECTOR JOBS
PRIVATE SECTOR WORKERS
PRIVATE SECTORS
PRODUCTIVE FIRMS
PROPERTY TAXES
PROTECTING WORKERS
PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT
PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYMENT
PUBLIC SECTOR JOB
PUBLIC SECTOR JOBS
PUBLIC SERVICES
REGULATORY AUTHORITIES
REGULATORY BARRIERS
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY SYSTEM
REMUNERATIVE EMPLOYMENT
RENTS
RETIREMENT
RETURNS
REVENUE SOURCES
RISK MANAGEMENT
RURAL EMPLOYMENT
SAFETY
SAFETY NET
SAFETY NETS
SALARIED WORKERS
SAVINGS
SAVINGS BEHAVIOR
SAVINGS SCHEMES
SEGMENTATIONS
SELF EMPLOYMENT
SERVICE SECTORS
SEVERANCE PAY
SOCIAL INSURANCE SYSTEM
SOCIAL INSURANCE SYSTEMS
SOCIAL NETWORKS
SOCIAL POLICIES
SOCIAL PROTECTION
SOCIAL SECURITY
SOCIAL SERVICES
STABLE JOBS
TAX
TAX OBLIGATIONS
TAXATION
TOTAL EMPLOYMENT
TRADE UNIONS
TRAINING PROGRAMS
TRANSACTION
TRANSACTION COSTS
TRANSPARENCY
TRANSPORT
TRIPARTITE
UNEMPLOYED
UNEMPLOYED WORKERS
UNEMPLOYMENT
UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
UNEMPLOYMENT RATES
UNPAID WORKERS
URBAN WORKERS
WAGE DISTRIBUTION
WAGE EMPLOYMENT
WAGE FLOORS
WAGE GAP
WAGE RIGIDITIES
WITHDRAWAL
WORKER
WORKERS
WORKING CONDITIONS
WORKING HOURS
WORKING POOR
YOUNG WORKERS




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