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Assessing the Reintegration of Ex-Combatants in the Context of Instability and Informal Economies : The Cases of the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Sudan

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World Bank (WB)

Abstract: The implementation of effective Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes in countries emerging from violent conflict are essential for building and maintaining peace and security. In many instances the disarmament and demobilisation of former combatants was achieved, but reintegration remained a challenge, due to the long-term focus and the substantial resources that are required for such a process to be successful. Reintegration processes are, nonetheless, often implemented in fragile environments, that include fragmented economies, in which most income generating activities are informal or unreported. Such economies are often characterised by unregulated, illicit activities, in which official governance is weak. This report is comprised of three parts. Part one includes a review of the literature on the reintegration of former combatants and the informal economy in Africa; a synopsis of post-conflict economies; and an outline of the analytical framework. Part two presents the findings of the case study research, focusing on the economies and DDR processes in each of the three countries, as well as assessing the reintegration process in relation to the informal economy. The third component of the report provides a comparative analysis of, and conclusions from, the research findings.
Type: Working Paper
Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Publications & Research
Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/27276
Subject: ADULT LITERACY
ADULT POPULATION
AGRICULTURE
ARMED CONFLICT
ARMED FORCE
BOTH SEXES
BOUNDARIES
CAPITAL FLIGHT
CASH CROPS
CIVIL WAR
COMMERCIAL BANKS
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
COMPETITIVENESS
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
CONFLICT
CONFLICT RESOLUTION
CONSTRAINT
CONSUMERS
CONVENTION
COUNSELLING
CULTURAL PRACTICES
DEATHS
DEBT
DEFENCE
DEFENCE POLICY
DEMOBILIZATION
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES
DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
DISARMAMENT
DISEASES
DISSEMINATION
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
ECONOMIC GROWTH
ECONOMIC IMPACT
ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES
ECONOMIC PROCESSES
ECONOMIC REGULATIONS
ECONOMIC REINTEGRATION
ECONOMIC SECTOR
ECONOMIC SITUATION
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
EMPLOYMENT CREATION
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
ENVIRONMENTAL
ENVIRONMENTS
EX-COMBATANT
EXPLOITATION
EXPORTS
FACT SHEET
FEASIBILITY STUDY
FEMALE COMBATANTS
FIGHTING
FISH
FISHING
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS
FOOD INSECURITY
FOOD SECURITY
FORESTRY
FORMER FIGHTERS
GDP
GDP PER CAPITA
GENDER DISCRIMINATION
GENDER INEQUALITY
GOVERNMENT OFFICES
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS
GRAVE
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
GROSS ENROLMENT RATIO
GROSS NATIONAL INCOME
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT PER CAPITA
HOME COUNTRIES
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
HUMAN SECURITY
HUSBANDS
IMF
INCOME-GENERATING ACTIVITIES
INTERNATIONAL BANK
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
LABOUR MARKET
LAND TENURE
LEGAL STATUS
LIFE EXPECTANCY
LIVE BIRTHS
LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES
LIVING STANDARDS
LOCAL AUTHORITIES
LOCAL ECONOMY
MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
MATERNAL MORTALITY
MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO
MEAT
MEDICAL CARE
MEETING
MILITARY PERSONNEL
MINES
MORTALITY
MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE
NATIONAL BOUNDARIES
NATIONAL INCOME
NATIONS
NATURAL RESOURCES
OIL
PARALLEL ECONOMY
PEACE
PEACE AGREEMENTS
PEACEKEEPING
PER CAPITA INCOME
POPULATION GROWTH
POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION
POST-CONFLICT SETTINGS
PRACTITIONERS
PRIMARY SCHOOL
PROGRESS
PROJECT DOCUMENTS
PROPERTY RIGHTS
RATES OF POPULATION
REAL GDP
REBEL
RECONCILIATION
RECONSTRUCTION
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
REHABILITATION
REHABILITATION ASSISTANCE
REINTEGRATION PROCESS
REPATRIATION
RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS
RESPECT
ROAD
RULE OF LAW
RURAL AREAS
RURAL COMMUNITIES
SAFETY NET
SCHOOL ENROLMENT
SECONDARY EDUCATION
SECONDARY SCHOOL
SECURITY CONCERN
SECURITY FORCES
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
SMALL BUSINESS
SOCIAL REINTEGRATION
SOLDIERS
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH
TAXATION
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
TECHNICAL COOPERATION
TIMBER
TOLERANCE
TRADE BARRIERS
TRANSACTION COSTS
TRANSPORTATION
UNDERDEVELOPMENT
UNDP
UNEMPLOYMENT
UNEMPLOYMENT RATES
UNIVERSITIES
URBAN AREAS
VIOLENCE
VIOLENT CONFLICT
VOCATIONAL TRAINING
WAR
WAR ECONOMIES
WEALTH
WEAPONS
YOUNG MEN




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