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The Unfulfilled Promise of Oil and Growth : Poverty, Inclusion and Welfare in Iraq 2007-2012

ACCESS TO EDUCATION ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE ACCOUNTING ADULT MALE AGRICULTURAL DECLINE AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT ANNUAL GROWTH ANNUAL GROWTH RATE BASIC HEALTH CARE BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE BASIC NEEDS BENEFICIAL EFFECTS CAPACITY BUILDING CASH TRANSFERS CHILDBIRTH CITIZENS CIVIL WAR CONSUMPTION GROWTH CRISES DEVELOPING WORLD DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY DIET DISPLACEMENT DIVERSIFICATION DRIVERS EARLY CHILDHOOD EARLY MARRIAGE EARLY MOTHERHOOD ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ECONOMIC ACTIVITY ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES EDUCATED MEN EDUCATED PEOPLE EDUCATED WORKERS EDUCATION LEVEL EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EMPLOYMENT GENERATION EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EMPLOYMENT RATE EMPLOYMENT STATUS FEMALE EMPLOYMENT FEMALE LABOR FEMALE LABOR FORCE FEMALE LITERACY FEMALE MORTALITY FEMALE TEACHERS FOOD IMPORTS FOOD NEEDS FOOD PRICES FOOD SECURITY FOOD SUBSIDIES GENDER DIFFERENCES GOOD GOVERNANCE GROWTH EFFECT GROWTH PROCESS HEADCOUNT POVERTY HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS HEALTH OUTCOMES HIGH POVERTY HOUSEHOLD SIZE HOUSEHOLD WELFARE HUMAN CAPITAL ILLITERACY IMPACT OF CONFLICT INCIDENCE OF POVERTY INCOME INCOME LEVELS INCOMES INCREASE INEQUITIES INFANT INFANT MORTALITY INFANT MORTALITY RATE INFORMAL SECTOR INSURANCE INVESTMENT CLIMATE INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION JOB CREATION JOB SEARCH JOB SECURITY LABOR FORCE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES LABOR MARKETS LABOR REGULATIONS LABOR SHARE LEVEL OF EDUCATION LEVELS OF EDUCATION LIFE EXPECTANCY LIMITED JOB OPPORTUNITIES LITERACY RATES LOCAL ECONOMY LOCAL INFRASTRUCTURE MALE LABOR FORCE MALE MORTALITY MALNOURISHED CHILDREN MALNUTRITION MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY MATHEMATICS MEASURING POVERTY MEDIUM TERM MORTALITY MORTALITY RATE MOTHER NATURAL RESOURCE NEGATIVE IMPACT NUTRITION PART TIME EMPLOYMENT PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT PEACE PENSIONS PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION PERSISTENT POVERTY PLACE OF RESIDENCE POINT DECLINE POLICY FRAMEWORK POLITICAL INSTABILITY POOR POOR INDIVIDUALS POVERTY HEADCOUNT RATES POVERTY LINE POVERTY RATES POVERTY REDUCTION PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIMARY SCHOOLING PRIMARY SOURCE PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE TRANSFERS PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT PRODUCTIVITY PROGRESS PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT PUBLIC EXPENDITURE PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYMENT PUBLIC SECTOR JOB PUBLIC SECTOR JOBS PUBLIC SERVICES PUBLIC WORKS PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAM PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAMS REGULATORY BARRIERS REMITTANCES RENTS RESOURCE ALLOCATION RESPECT RICH COUNTRIES RULE OF LAW RURAL RURAL AREAS RURAL HOUSEHOLDS RURAL LIVELIHOODS SAFETY SAFETY NET SAFETY NETS SCHOOL ATTENDANCE SCHOOL QUALITY SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SECTOR REFORMS SECURITY SITUATION SERVICE DELIVERY SKILLED LABOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL NORMS SOCIAL PROTECTION SOCIAL SERVICES SPILLOVER STATE ENTERPRISES STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TECHNICAL SKILLS TERTIARY EDUCATION TRAINING SYSTEM TRANSPORTATION UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES URBAN AREAS VOCATIONAL TRAINING VULNERABILITY WAGE GAP WAGES WAR WARS WEALTH DISTRIBUTION WORKERS WORKFORCE WORKING-AGE POPULATION YOUNG CHILDREN YOUNG MEN YOUNG MOTHERS YOUNG PEOPLE YOUTH LABOR ZAKAT
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Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | Iraq
2015-01-29T21:11:01Z | 2015-01-29T21:11:01Z | 2014-12-01

Iraq appears to have firmly entered the ranks of upper middle-income countries in 2012, having experienced strong economic growth following the establishment of a civilian elected government in 2005-06. In 2012 the years of growth culminated in a per capita GDP of 2472 constant 2005 US$. This three-volume poverty and inclusion assessment provides the first in-depth analysis of Iraq's economic and social development during the period of 2007 to 2012. Volume 1 is an overview of the economic climate in Iraq, providing brushstroke descriptions of its poverty reduction plans, labor markets, public health data, and education focal points. Volume 2 is a nine-chapter report on the years between 2007 and 2012, a period of relative stability in Iraq. 2007 marks the end of sectarian violence, which lasted until 2012, prior to the militancy and insurgency in the northern governorates of the summer of 2014. The country has been a nexus of conflict and fragility since the early 1980s, and has experienced multiple types of conflict: insurgency, international war, sectarian strife, persistent terrorism, regional fragmentation, and spillovers from conflict in other countries. What should have been a promising endowment of natural resources of land, oil and gas, as well of human capital, did not provide the foundation for poverty reduction and shared prosperity. The realization of potential was confounded by war and repression. A key priority of the Government of Iraq since 2005-06 has been to fill the huge knowledge gap in terms of a deeper understanding of the state of the economy and of a range of socioeconomic indicators of welfare with the objective of building a strong evidence base for effective policy making. The rich analyses presented in this report go well beyond counting the poor. It gives an incisive understanding of the multi-layered development challenges faced by the nation, which serves as a testament to the commitment of the Government of Iraq, the staff of the Central Statistics Office, and the Kurdistan Region Statistics Office. It will form the basis for a new strategy for Iraq's development and ensure broad-based welfare improvements for the population. Volume 3 consists of nine annexes and nine references in the forms of tables, boxes, and equations used in the methodologies.

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