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Breaking the Metal Ceiling : Female Entrepreneurs Who Succeed in Male-Dominated Sectors

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World Bank (WB)

Abstract: A range of reasons is cited to explain gender differences in business performance in Africa. Within those, the sector of operations is consistently identified as a major issue. This paper uses a mixed methods approach to assess how women entrepreneurs in Uganda start (and strive) operating firms in male-dominated sectors, and what hinders other women from doing so. The study finds that women who cross over into male-dominated sectors make as much as men, and three times more than women who stay in female-dominated sectors. The paper examines a set of factors to explain the differences in sector choices, and finds that there is a problem of information about opportunities in male-dominated industries. The analysis also concludes that psychosocial factors, particularly the influence of male role models and exposure to the sector from family and friends, are critical in helping women circumvent or overcome the norms that undergird occupational segregation.
Type: Working Paper
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Publications & Research
Link: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2015/12/25512942/breaking-metal-ceiling-female-entrepreneurs-succeed-male-dominated-sectors
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/23469
Subject: FEMALE ENTREPRENEUR
BUSINESS ACTIVITIES
BUSINESS OWNERS
EMPOWERMENT
BIRTH
CREDIT COOPERATIVE
EDUCATION LEVELS
ECONOMIC GROWTH
PEOPLE
FINANCIAL RESOURCES
ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES
BRIBES
INTEREST
FINANCIAL LITERACY
ENROLLMENT
BIAS
INTEREST RATE
FINANCIAL RESOURCES
SOURCES OF CREDIT
FINANCIAL SUPPORT
BANK ACCOUNT
ENTREPRENEURS
MOTHERS
DISCRIMINATION
FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS
INEQUALITIES
FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP
REVENUES
CREDIT CONSTRAINTS
LIMITED ACCESS TO FINANCE
LOAN
BUSINESS OWNERSHIP
FEMALE BUSINESS
INTEREST RATE
CORRUPTION
SAVING
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
INTERNATIONAL BANK
BUSINESS SUCCESS
FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
SMALL BUSINESS
SMALL BUSINESS
LABOR MARKET
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS
SAVINGS
CREDIT COOPERATIVE
AID
SOURCE OF CREDIT
FEMALE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES
BUSINESS OWNERSHIP
BARRIERS TO ENTRY
ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES
LIMITED ACCESS
MALE
CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS
ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES
EDUCATION SYSTEM
ECONOMIES OF SCALE
ACCESS TO FINANCE
ENTERPRISES
FEMALE BUSINESS
STRUCTURAL INEQUALITIES
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
FINANCE
VOUCHER
ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY
EXPENDITURE
LABOR MARKET
EQUITY
HUMAN CAPITAL
GENDER GAPS
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
GENDER SEGREGATION
CREDIT CONSTRAINTS
FEMALE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY
WOMEN BUSINESS OWNERS
CAPITAL
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES
FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP
SMALL ENTERPRISES
GENDER DIFFERENCES
CREDIT PROVIDERS
GENDER SEGREGATION
WOMAN
EDUCATION LEVELS
FAMILY
FINANCIAL CAPITAL
ACCESS TO FINANCE
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
GENDER
BANK
FATHERS
CREDIT
BUSINESS NETWORK
BUSINESS OWNER
HOUSEHOLD
EDUCATION LEVEL
ENTERPRISE
PROPERTY
YOUTH
GENDER GAPS
MOTHER
WOMEN BUSINESS OWNERS
BUSINESS SUPPORT
SOURCE OF CREDIT
FEMALE ENTREPRENEUR
HUMAN CAPITAL
FORMAL BANK
PROFITABILITY
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT
SEX
MICROFINANCE
FINANCIAL CAPITAL
BUSINESS WOMEN
ENTREPRENEURSHIP OPPORTUNITIES
BUSINESS SUCCESS
BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES
MICROFINANCE INSTITUTION
BUSINESS ACTIVITY
ECONOMIES OF SCALE
HUSBAND
BUSINESS OWNER
INVESTMENT
FATHER
PROFITABLE BUSINESSES
CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS
BUSINESS RECORDS
EQUALITY
BUSINESSWOMEN
FAMILY FARM
EMPLOYEE
REVENUE
EARNINGS
FINANCIAL SUPPORT
BORROWING
INFORMED CHOICES
ENTREPRENEURIAL FINANCE
MARRIED WOMEN
FEES
WOMEN
ENTREPRENEUR
BUSINESS PLANNING
BUSINESS WOMEN
PROFITABLE BUSINESSES
FEMALE
ECONOMIC GROWTH
SELF‐EMPLOYMENT
COOPERATIVE
GENDER EQUALITY
WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
MICROFINANCE INSTITUTION
EMPLOYEES
AFRICA GENDER POLICY
GENDER INNOVATION LAB
WOMEN AND PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT




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