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Breaking Even or Breaking Through : Reaching Financial Sustainability while Providing High Quality Standards in Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

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World Bank (WB)

Abstract: Higher education (HE) systems worldwide are faced with three main challenges: providing young people with the skills required by the job market; improving access to high quality services; and seeking out new sources of financing to cope with the growing student demand. This document will provide evidence on the need to seek sustainable financing strategies for countries in Middle East and North Africa (MENA), whether they are high income economies, such as the oil producing countries, or low to middle income economies. Chapter one presents an overall description of HE graduates and the many challenges they face in their transition into the workforce. The different elements that affect this transition are discussed and special attention is given to the mismatches between labor supply and demand. Chapter two analyses the current levels of spending on HE, projects the future financing gaps taking into account the need to continue expanding access and improving quality and relevance, and provides a framework for funding approaches linked to meeting access, equity, and quality goals. Chapter three outlines ways of using current funds in more effective ways, emphasizing the need to align financing allocations with policy goals. Innovative funding allocations that link funding to performance and demand- as well as supply-side mechanisms are discussed. Chapter four discusses different ways to diversify sources of funding and presents alternative methods of cost-sharing. The chapter emphasizes the equity measures needed for cost-sharing mechanisms, such as student fees, and provides an overview of student loan programs used in MENA and elsewhere. Chapter five discusses the role of private provision of HE, and how this can be an alternative to increase access and quality, provided the necessary regulatory and quality controls are in place. Chapter six describes an alternative source of funding not yet common in MENA, namely the use of philanthropic resources to build endowments to support HE.
Type: Report
Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
Economic & Sector Work
Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/23990
Subject: ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS
ACADEMIC PROGRAMS
ACCREDITATION
ACHIEVEMENT
ALLOCATION MECHANISM
ALLOCATION MECHANISMS
ALLOCATION OF FUNDS
ALTERNATIVE FINANCING
ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF FUNDING
APPLICATION PROCESS
BANK LOANS
BANKING SYSTEM
BASIC EDUCATION
BASIC SKILLS
BLOCK GRANT
BLOCK GRANTS
BROAD ACCESS
BUSINESS ENTRY
BUSINESS TRAINING
CIVIL SERVICE
CIVIL SOCIETY
COGNITIVE SKILLS
COMMUNITY COLLEGES
CONTINUING EDUCATION
CORRUPTION
COST-SHARING
CURRICULA
DEGREES
DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATION
DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS
DISCIPLINES
DISTANCE EDUCATION
DIVERSIFICATION
DROP OUTS
E-LEARNING
EARNINGS
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
ECONOMIC CRISIS
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
ECONOMIC GROWTH
EDUCATION LEVEL
EDUCATION OUTCOMES
EDUCATION POLICIES
EDUCATION PROGRAMS
EDUCATION QUALITY
EDUCATION SECTOR
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
EDUCATIONAL GOALS
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
EDUCATIONAL QUALITY
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA
EMPLOYERS
EMPLOYMENT
EMPLOYMENT GROWTH
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
ENDOWMENTS
ENGINEERING EDUCATION
ENROLLMENT
ENROLLMENT GROWTH
ENROLLMENT RATES
ENROLLMENT RATIO
EQUIPMENT COSTS
EXPENDITURE
FACULTIES
FAMILIES
FIELDS OF STUDY
FINANCIAL AID
FINANCIAL AID TO STUDENTS
FINANCIAL NEEDS
FINANCIAL RESOURCES
FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES
FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
FINANCING NEEDS
FISCAL POLICY
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
FOREIGN FIRMS
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
FORMAL EDUCATION
FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM
FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEMS
FREE ACCESS
FUNDING SOURCE
GENDER
GOVERNMENT GRANTS
GRADUATE LEVEL
HIGHER EDUCATION
HIGHER EDUCATION FINANCING
HIGHER EDUCATION FUNDING
HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
HIGHER EDUCATION SUPPLY
HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEMS
HOUSEHOLDS
HUMAN CAPITAL
INEQUALITIES
INEQUALITY
INFORMAL WORKERS
INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE
INSTITUTIONAL AUTONOMY
INSTRUCTION
INTELLECTUAL CONTRIBUTION
INTEREST RATES
INTERNATIONAL BANKING
INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION
JOB MARKET
JOB TRAINING
KEY CHALLENGES
KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
LABOR FORCE
LABOR FORCE SURVEY
LABOR MARKET
LABOR MARKETS
LABOR MOBILITY
LACK OF ACCESS
LEARNING
LEARNING OUTCOMES
LIFE SKILLS
MIGRANT WORKERS
NEW MARKETS
OPEN UNIVERSITY
OPERATIONAL COSTS
PER STUDENT EXPENDITURES
POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTES
PRIMARY SCHOOLS
PRIVATE FUNDING
PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION
PRIVATE INVESTMENT
PRIVATE INVESTMENTS
PRIVATE TERTIARY EDUCATION
PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
PROFITABILITY
PUBLIC EXPENDITURES
PUBLIC FINANCES
PUBLIC FUNDS
PUBLIC SUBSIDIES
PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES
PUBLIC UNIVERSITY
PUPILS
PURCHASING POWER
PURCHASING POWER PARITY
QUALITY EDUCATION
QUALITY OF EDUCATION
QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
QUALITY STANDARDS
RATES OF RETURN
REAL ESTATE
RECESSION
REMITTANCES
REPEATERS
SAVINGS
SCHOLARSHIP
SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM
SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMS
SCHOLARSHIPS
SCHOOL DROP
SCHOOLING
SCHOOLS
SCIENTISTS
SECONDARY EDUCATION
SECONDARY SCHOOL
SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATES
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL BENEFITS
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL JUSTICE
SOCIAL MOBILITY
SOCIAL NETWORK
SOCIAL SCIENCES
SOCIAL SKILLS
SOCIAL WELFARE
SOURCES OF FUNDS
STUDENT AID
STUDENT DEMAND
STUDENT EXPENDITURES
STUDENT FEES
STUDENT INTAKE
STUDENT LEARNING
STUDENT LOAN
STUDENT LOAN PROGRAMS
STUDENT LOANS
STUDENT POPULATION
STUDENT SUPPORT
TAX CREDIT
TEACHING
TECHNICAL SKILLS
TERTIARY EDUCATION
TERTIARY EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
TERTIARY EDUCATION SYSTEM
TERTIARY EDUCATION SYSTEMS
TERTIARY ENROLLMENTS
TERTIARY GRADUATES
TRANSACTION COSTS
TUITION
TUITION FEES
UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS
UNEMPLOYMENT
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE
UNEMPLOYMENT RATES
UNFAIR COMPETITION
UNIVERSITIES
UNIVERSITY AUTONOMY
UNIVERSITY DEGREE
UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY GRADUATES
UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
VOUCHER
VOUCHERS
WORKERS




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