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Gold Mining and Proto-Urbanization : Recent Evidence from Ghana

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World Bank (WB)

Abstract: Central place theory predicts that agglomeration can arise from external shocks. This paper investigates whether gold mining is a catalyst for proto-urbanization in rural Ghana. Using cross-sectional data, the analysis finds that locations within 10 kilometers from gold mines have more night light and proportionally higher employment in industry and services and in the wage sector. Non-farm employment decreases at 20–30 kilometers distance to gold mines. These findings are consistent with agglomeration effects that induce non-farm activities to coalesce in one particular location. This paper finds that, over time, an increase in gold production is associated with more wage employment and apprenticeship, and fewer people employed in private informal enterprises. It also finds that the changes arising from increasing gold production are not reversed when large gold mines shrink. However this pattern cannot be ascribed unambiguously to agglomeration effects, given an increase in informal mining after formal mines decrease output is also observed.
Type: Working Paper
Publications & Research
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/22227
Subject: CLOSED MINES
GOLD PRICES
EMPLOYMENT
SOCIAL NORMS
POPULATION CENSUSES
LARGE-SCALE MINES
EXTRACTIVE RESOURCES
ECONOMIC GROWTH
NEGATIVE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
WORKING-AGE POPULATION
URBANIZATION
UNDERGROUND MINES
INFORMAL MINERS
SERVICE SECTOR
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
RESOURCE EXTRACTION
GOLD MINING
URBAN SETTLEMENTS
MERCURY
MINING SECTOR
LABOR FORCE
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
TREND
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
FEMALE EMPLOYMENT
POLICY DISCUSSIONS
SCALE MINING
HIGHWAY SYSTEM
PUBLICATIONS
ROUTES
ADULT POPULATION
WEALTH
CLOSURE
POPULATION SIZE
URBAN CENTER
UNDERGROUND
HEALTH FACILITIES
CATALYST
TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE
KNOWLEDGE
LABOR MARKET
MINERALS INDUSTRY
ROAD
RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH
ROAD NETWORK
MINERAL DEPOSITS
TRANSPORT
POPULATION GROWTH
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY SYSTEM
TRANSPORT ACTIVITIES
SMALL-SCALE MINING ACTIVITIES
GOLD
GOLD MINES
ABANDONED MINES
NON-FARM EMPLOYMENT
INDUSTRIALIZATION
EXTERNALITIES
SAND
MINING COMPANIES
EMPLOYMENT COMPOSITION
MINING ACTIVITY
TRUE
POLLUTION
SCALE MINING ACTIVITIES
CONCENTRATION OF POPULATION
LABOR
NATURAL RESOURCES
ACTIVE MINES
TAILINGS
INFRASTRUCTURE
LAND USE
CITY POPULATION
MINING LOCATIONS
PROGRESS
GOLD MINE
UNEMPLOYMENT
TRANSPORTATION
GEOLOGY
POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER
CROSS-SECTIONAL DATA
CHANGES IN POPULATION SIZE
LARGE CITIES
URBAN CENTERS
ACCESSIBILITY
MINES
POPULATION DENSITY
URBAN AREAS
NUTRITION
RAILWAY
HIGHWAYS
MINERAL INDUSTRY
POLICY
WAGE SECTOR
MINING COMMUNITIES
SKILLED LABOR
ROADS
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MINING ACTIVITIES
HIGHWAY
CLOSURES
RAILWAYS
ECONOMIES OF SCALE
RESOLUTION
SMALL MINES
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION
CENSUSES
ACCIDENTS
RURAL AREAS
RAILROADS
URBAN CENTRES
FEWER PEOPLE
POPULATION
LABOR SUPPLY
MARITAL STATUS
RURAL COUNTIES
MINING AREAS
MARRIED WOMEN
POLICY RESEARCH
SMALL-SCALE MINING
SMALL-SCALE
GOLD DEPOSITS
LOCAL DEVELOPMENT
INFORMAL MINING
WOMEN
NOISE
LABOR MARKETS
HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
RURAL DEVELOPMENT
GOLD PRODUCTION
WAGE EMPLOYMENT
MINERAL MINING
AGGLOMERATION EFFECTS
DEVELOPMENT POLICY
MINERALS




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