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Gender, Poverty, and Nonfarm Employment in Ghana and Uganda

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World Bank (WB)

Abstract: The authors provide evidence that women's non-farm activities help reduce poverty in two economically and culturally different countries, Ghana and Uganda. In both countries rural poverty rates were lowest - and fell most rapidly - for female heads of household engaged in non-farm activities. Participation in non-farm activities increased more rapidly for women, especially married women and female heads of household, than for men. Women were more likely than men to combine agriculture and non-farm activities. In Ghana it was non-farm activities (for which income data are available ) that provided the highest average incomes and the highest shares of income. Bivariate profit analysis of participation shows that in Uganda female heads of household and in Ghana women in general are significantly more likely than men to participate in non-farm activities and less likely to participate in agriculture.
Type: Publications & Research
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Subject: agricultural output
agricultural production
consumption data
cultural practices
data collection
dependency ratio
dependent variable
developing countries
development network
division of labor
econometric estimates
economic activity
exchange rates
farm activities
female headed-households
female-headed households
household head
household income
household level
household size
household survey
household surveys
human capital
human development
individual level
informal sector
labor market
living standards
living standards measurement
mean income
national poverty
national poverty line
policy implications
policy makers
policy research
poverty analysis
poverty levels
poverty line
poverty lines
poverty measurement
poverty reduction
poverty research
poverty trends
primary school
reducing poverty
research report
rural areas
rural development
rural economy
rural employment
rural households
rural population
rural poverty
rural residents
social development
social protection
urban areas
urban poverty
wage income
nonfarm income
female headed households
married women
household surveys
gender analysis
rural employment
poverty statistics
educational level
market access

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